James worked for four years at English Heritage managing a conservation grants programme for textiles, ceramics, metalwork and stained glass. He returned to conservation in 1994, when he gained his Masters in Architecture from the University of York. He focused on the built heritage of Arabia, with a particular emphasis on Oman, and his dissertation on that country’s vernacular architecture, historic landscapes and falaj system was the first of its kind at Masters level. He subsequently worked as a consultant on heritage conservation projects in Yemen, where he ran workshops at the universities in Sana’a and Aden, and in Jeddah, where he worked with the city’s Historic Area Preservation Department to produce a heritage trail around the old quarter. James also contributed the chapter on af